Switch or Stay? Switching motivators from habitual transit use to Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) in Tyrol
Considering the 2050 Energy Autonomy Programme in Tyrol, there is a scope to understand the demand for MaaS to close the temporal and local gaps in transit services, and to generate positive attitudes towards electro- and sustainable mobility. Besides, existing shared mobility offers in Tyrol (e.g. Tyrolean Transport Agency-VVT carsharing offers, innovative ride-hailing service-Ummadum) entails the need to be integrated into the overall offer and financed permanently. The results from the former studies also show suffiecient multimodality and transit app usage in Innsbruck, which is prerequisite for MaaS adoption. Furthermore, the user satisfaction survey conducted by local transit operators in Innsbruck in 2016 identified that 30% of the young users (upto 29 years) see a reduction in their future public transport use. Hence, it focuses on multimodal young transit users to exlplore their interest for MaaS and role of operators as the leading integartors for MaaS to retain ridership.
Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) depends on collaboration with public transport. Although MaaS has attracted much research attention in the last five years, studies focusing on user acceptance and switching to MaaS are limited. Hence, This study focuses on habitual transit users' willingness to switch from their current yearly subscription towards a new MaaS service in Tyrol, while considering service features, service-based attitudes, and normative, gain, and hedonic goal framing. A stated-preference survey elicited the choice between yearly transit ticket and hypothetical MaaS subscription options. A discrete choice model, estimated on a sample of 1,416 transit users in Innsbruck , validated the framework. The latent variables are service-based factors, switching difficulties, environmental attitudes, time-saving skills, flexibility and pro-car, pro-bike attitudes, and taste for innovation. Socio-economic attributes and trip characteristics served as control variables.
The results show that switching from transit to MaaS is non-trivial in a medium-sized city like Innsbruck with high quality transit service, as people tend to favor the familiar transit alternative. Transit satisfaction and perceived difficulties of MaaS use motivate staying with transit use. Contrary to the intuition, environmentally responsible individuals actually prefer the current transit ticket. Switching to MaaS is driven mainly by taste for innovation, time-saving skills, transit system underutilization, and pro-cycling attitudes. Transit will be an important part of MaaS since the amount of transit trips included in the package are positively associated with MaaS adoption. So, in medium-size cities with high quality transit service MaaS is complementary rather than competitive. Increased visibility of the existing shared-service is necessary. Results have implication on the marketing strategy for MaaS which should be based on innovation rather than environmentalism.
Arbeitsbereich für Intelligente Verkehrssysteme, Universität Innsbruck: Projektleiterin (Principle Investigator)
Innsbrucker Verkehrsbetriebe und Stubaitalbahn Gmb: Projektförderung; Mitwirkung beim Umfrageentwurf
Verkehrsverbund Tirol (VVT): Projektförderung; Mitwirkung beim Umfrageentwurf
Hebräische Universität Jerusalem, Israel: Kooperation in der Forschung
Yonsei Universität: Kooperation in der Forschung